Most of the current machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity is working over the 2G GPRS standard, requiring 2G EDGE coverage and SIM cards. As operators phase out some 2G networks, in part to reduce cost, new standards have emerged in the past five years: Zigbee, LoRa, LTE-M, Wi-Fi 802.11ah (HaLow) and 802.11af (White-Fi).

Depending on the application, security needs and cost factors, some are better than others.

This EE Times article outlines the most popular standards, their features and advantages:

Author: IoTWEditor